obedience refers to

Whether a behavior is considered deviant depends on the circumstances under which it occurs. Considerations of certain behaviors as deviant also vary from one society to another and from one era to another within a given society.

obedience refers to

This often occurs in groups, when an individual conforms to the social norms respected by a majority of the group’s members. People want to ‘fit in’ amongst friends and colleagues, and to be liked and respected by other members of their social group. They value the opinions of other members, and seek to maintain their standing within the group. Therefore, individuals will adjust their own attitudes and behavior to match the accepted norms of the group.

Authority Figure Wearing A Uniform

” and the Learner replied “I’m ready to start”, and usually the participant responded likewise. In the case of the HC the partition through which the Learner was seen then closed, and from that point onwards the Learner communicated answers only through text displayed on the projection screen. In the case of the VC the Learner remained visible and her voice could be heard throughout. In response to the participant reading out the 5 words in the VC, the Learner would sometimes answer immediately, and sometimes pause and look around as if thinking before answering. Sometimes the Learner would protest and on three occasions not answer the question. At the end of this learning session the partition was closed again, and there was a final relaxation period of 5 minutes. During the baseline and final relaxation period the experimenter left the Cave area.

They won, at least in part, by assuming that the Astros would be attempting to steal their signs, and putting into place elaborate countermeasures, including multiple sets of signs for each pitcher. So, a willingness to follow instructions is generally a good thing. But blind obedience to those in charge can have unfortunate consequences when leaders lack ethical conviction themselves.

  • The mean age was 29±8 years with no significant difference between the HC and VC groups.
  • Persuasion, as we found, works by changing our attitudes or behaviors through the message that is presented.
  • There are also others who are the followers of spiritual leaders and they sees him as a legitimate authority and will tend to obey his orders even if it is wrong.
  • The relative strength of these two influences is taken to determine rates of obedience, whether it is understood in terms of the Teacher’s relative identification with Experimenter and Learner or “tuning them in ” .
  • His eyes told him one thing, but five out of five people apparently saw something else.
  • Consider some of the remaining issues and sources of controversy surrounding Milgram’s obedience studies.
  • However, it is important to bear in mind the limitations inherent in the distinction between the explicit knowledge that the situation is fake, and the implicit knowledge that is embedded in the virtual reality portrayal.

White-collar crime Crimes committed by “respectable” individuals, often while they practice their occupations– for example, embezzling money or stealing computer time. Totalitarianism A form of autocracy that involves the use of state power to control and regulate all phases of life. Total institution A place where people spend 24 hours of every day for an extended part of their lives, cut off from the rest of society and tightly controlled by the people in charge. Theory Y A view of organizational behavior suggesting that people have the desire to work, to be creative, and to take responsibility for their jobs and for the organization. Taboo A strongly prohibited social practice; the strongest form of social norm. Symbolic interactionism An interpretive perspective, inspired by the work of George Herbert Mead, saying that individuals learn meanings through interaction with others and then organize their lives around these socially created meanings.

Minority group Any recognizable racial, religious, ethnic, or social group that suffers from some disadvantage resulting from the action of a dominant group with higher social status and greater privileges. “Me” portion of the self In George Herbert Mead’s view, the portion of the self that brings the influence of others into the individual’s consciousness. Matthew effect The social process whereby one advantage an individual has is likely to lead to additional advantages. Marriage squeeze A situation in which the eligible individuals of one sex outnumber the supply of potential marriage partners of the other sex. Marriage A social institution that recognizes and approves the sexual union of two or more individuals and includes a set of mutual rights and obligations. Macro level An analysis of societies that focuses on large-scale institutions, structures, and processes. Life-style Family, child-bearing, and educational attitudes and practices; personal values; type of residence; consumer, political, and civic behavior; religion.

Other Words From Obedience

In our individualistic society, being unique has value and when the majority conforming feels wrong, it can trigger us to separate ourselves from them. The most widely known version of these studies is the one where the learner suffers from a heart condition.

Psychological evidence indicates that people tend to respect and follow those whom they perceive to have legitimate authority. This can lead to trouble if it causes people to fail to exercise their own independent ethical judgment. 36 short illustrated videos explain behavioral ethics concepts and basic ethics https://accounting-services.net/ principles. People obey easy commands first and then feel compelled to obey more and more difficult commands. This process is called entrapment, and it illustrates the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. Is the modification of the opinions of members of a group to align with what they believe is the group consensus .

Xi Chapter 11: Social Psychology

All these factors, together with the non-quantifiable participant behaviour observed by the experimenters, show a pattern of responses similar to those found in the original Milgram studies, although at lesser intensity. An immersive virtual environment is formed by a computer-generated surrounding real-time display of virtual sensory data from a viewpoint determined by the tracked position and orientation of the participant’s head . This delivers a life-sized virtual reality within which a person can experience events and interact with representations of objects and virtual humans. This system and how stereo projection and head-tracking is achieved was described in an earlier paper . We have carried out a replication of Milgram’s experiment, but in an immersive virtual environment, where participants were required to give ‘electric shocks’ – to a virtual human.

  • In reality, the experiment focuses on people’s willingness to obey malevolent authority.
  • Your freedoms don’t actually have to be personally threatened or eliminated, simply hearing or observing someone else’s freedoms being threatened or eliminated can elicit reactance (Sittenthaler, Traut-Mattausch, & Jonas, 2015).
  • The participants were therefore put into a situation where everything conspired to give the impression that this was a serious matter.
  • The majority opinion then becomes law, and people have to obey this law.

For example, if an athlete is less skilled or nervous about making a free throw, having an audience may actually hinder rather than help. In sum, social facilitation is likely to occur for easy tasks, or tasks at which we are skilled, but worse performance may occur when performing difficult or novel tasks in front of others. An example of informational social influence may be what to do in an emergency situation. Imagine that you are in a movie theater watching a film and what seems to be smoke comes in the theater from under the emergency exit door. You are not certain that it is smoke—it might be a special effect for the movie, such as a fog machine. When you are uncertain you will tend to look at the behavior of others in the theater.

But when the experimenter dressed in everyday clothes obedience was very low. Another example of the agenetic state involved a variation of Milgram’s study whereby participants could instruct an assistant to press the switches. This shows when there is less personal responsibility obedience increases. He conducted a lab experiment in which two participants were assigned either the role of a teacher or learner (a confederate called Mr. Wallace). Compliance and obedience also have a similarity in the foot-in-the-door approach. Studies have shown that having the participant commit to a small act initially, such as accepting a taster at a supermarket, can lead to improvement in compliance to further request in the later stage (Freedman & Fraser, 1966). This is also reflected in the Milgram experiments on obedience where the subject built up from smaller shocks to larger ones.

The method of punishment was electric shock, with the participant instructed to give increasingly severe shocks to the confederate for each wrong answer. The participant’s dilemma occurred when the confederate complained about the shocks and demanded to be released from the shock apparatus.

Understand the two primary reasons why people often conform to perceived norms. People with a high internal locus of control perceive themselves as having a great deal of personal control over their behavior and are therefore more likely to take responsibility for the way they behave. For example, I did well on the exams because I revised extremely hard. The authority they use is legitimate as it is argued by society, helping it to run smoothly.

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Most people can anticipate their superiors’ desires and may act to please them even without being explicitly asked. For example, when Toshiba needed to inflate its earnings, implicit pressure from top officers was sufficient to induce division managers to misreport their earnings.

obedience refers to

Informal social control, such as the anger depicted here, is used to control behavior that violates informal norms. The fact that both deviance and crime arouse negative social reactions reminds us that every society needs to ensure that its members generally obey social norms in their daily interaction. Not only did this experiment influence the literature on obedience, but it has raised important issues in research methodology and ethics.

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Our main objective has not been to study obedience but human responses to interaction with a virtual character in the type of extreme social situation exemplified by the conflict created within Milgram’s paradigm. “Number” distinguishes two conditions (15 [“good experimenter, bad experimenter”] & 16 [“experimenter becomes learner”]) employing two experimenters, both coded “1”, from all others, coded “0”. There are however, factors about the situation that make obedience more or less likely.

obedience refers to

Conformity is peer pressure, the individual was not asked to do, he just do it to go along with everyone else because the individual wants to be accepted. Obedience on the other hand comes from authoritative people such as teachers and policemen. The individual obeys the instruction that came from these authoritative figures. This paper aims to look at the similarities and differences between the concepts of the three types of social influences. And also to look specifically at those factors that will affect each of the three. In conclusion, it was found that two of the forms of social influences are very similar to each other and almost to the stage of interchangeable, while the other stands alone with influencing factors that are different from the other two.

Similarities And Differences Between Concepts Of Compliance, Obedience, And Conformity

Stanley Milgram created a highly controversial and often replicated study, the Milgram experiment, where he focused on how long participants would listen to and obey orders from the experimenter. Thus, obedience can also assist a person to guide someone to the correct path and eventually be an example to others. This call for blind obedience sparked discussion well past the lifetime of Confucius. He also argued that it has had a negative effect on the Chinese people. Summary of his work, called the ‘Remote’ condition), the learner, who was in a separate room to the participant, was restricted to banging on the wall at 300V and then ceasing to respond after 315V. All participants went up to the 300-V mark and 65% continued to 450V.

Psychologists continue to debate the extent to which Milgram’s studies tell us something about atrocities in general and about the behavior of German citizens during the Holocaust in particular . Certainly, there are important features of that time and place that cannot be recreated in a laboratory, such as a pervasive climate of prejudice and dehumanization. Some people have argued that today we are more aware of the dangers of blind obedience than we were when the research was conducted back in the 1960s. However, findings from partial and modified replications of Milgram’s procedures conducted in recent years suggest that people respond to the situation today much like they did a half a century ago . Their experiment was based on a mock jury in which groups of three participants and one confederate had to decide on the amount of compensation to be given to the victim of a ski-lift accident.

Something Went Wrong

Another classic study from the 1930’s that was conducted at Bennington College, demonstrated the emergence of norms as well, but in a real world social setting . Researchers assessed the incoming freshmen who were often from wealthy, conservative families in the area and found that their belief systems lined up with their families.

The orders gradually become more demanding, until an order to the soldiers to place themselves into the midst of gunfire gets an instinctively obedient response. Using data from his previous study, Burger probed participant’s thoughts about obedience. Participants’ comments from the previous study were coded for the number of times they mentioned “personal responsibility and the learner’s well being”. The number of prods the participants used in the first experiment were also measured. Social science theories of authority, on the other hand, tend to ask and answer the problem-solving questions what, why, when, how, where, and who. In other words, social science theorists of authority, such as Weber and the other social scientists discussed above, are less interested in justifying or condemning authority, than in understanding it. The most basic paradigm for conceptualizing authority was the one set into motion by Max Weber, and he and others addressed how obedience to authority comes to replace obedience to power.

Sample survey A systematic method of collecting information from respondents, using personal interviews or written questionnaires. Role accumulation Adding more statuses obedience refers to and roles to the ones an individual already has. Rising expectations A situation in which people feel that past hardships should not have to be suffered in the future.